We know that September the 16th is coming and we have started seeing decorations, flags and sombreros being sold everywhere, it is quite important to be well informed about why this is such a big celebration to Mexico!
We have put together this quick summary for you to know a little and maybe tell those around you that don’t!
INDEPENDENCE OF MEXICO (1810-1821)
This short summary will tell you about how in just eleven years, this movement allowed the insurgent army to end almost three centuries of Spanish rule in Mexican territory.
The period of our history known as the War of Independence begins (strictly speaking) the morning of September 16, 1810, when Father Miguel Hidalgo gave the so-called “Grito de Dolores” and finished on September 27, 1821 (11 years later) with the triumphal entry of Trigarante Army, led by Agustin de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero to a triumphant Mexico City. The main objective of this movement (armed and social) was to free our country from Spanish rule and in every corner of the colony to forget the whole concept of the Viceroyalty.
As it is logical to suppose, before 1810 there were notable ideological antecedents on track “by the hunger for freedom” already operating mainly in the minds of the Creoles (people born in Mexico but of European parents); known even before the outbreak of Independence, one of the great thinkers of the time, Fray Melchor de Talamantes, had managed to move several subversive writings in which it was stated that the Mexican territory, had “all the resources and powers to livelihoods, preservation and happiness of its inhabitants “, stating that it could become independent and also The independence of Mexico was desirable because the Spanish government did not address the general good of the New Spain, as it’s rulers would never consist of purely Mexican citizens.
STAGES OF INDEPENDENCE
Ranging from the Grito de Dolores (16 September 1810) to the Battle of Calderón Bridge (in the present municipality of Zapotlanejo, Jalisco, on January 17, 1811), when the crowd directed by Guadalupe Hidalgo with its famous banner in hand he fought with more passion and courage that strategy. At this time, when the priest of Dolores reached its rendezvous with history on the bridge, his forces were estimated at around one hundred thousand men (between Creoles, Indians, mestizos and people of caste). For its part, the royalists, soldiers loyal to the Spanish crown and the Viceroy, should hover between 50 thousand troops.
In this period Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon gets involved. This ranges from early 1811 until the fall of Fort San Diego in Acapulco (in August 1813). During this time, the insurgents had scored several victories being the most famous from the central regions-in Cuautla, where a major break came cerco- and southern-in Acapulco and Chilpancingo, where even managed the first Congress in Anáhuac- current Mexico.
It is characterized by great disorder. With the death of the “Servant of the Nation” (shot in Ecatepec, in the State of Mexico), a large void is created in the command of the insurgent and realistic groups, taking advantage of this situation, the command of the dreaded General Felix Maria Calleja achieved to recover and regain the offensive. At this stage the last major insurgent stronghold surrenders and, technically, the loyalists had won the war. troops, such as the one lead by Vicente Guerrero (in the south), continued armed. This period ended on February 1821 with the signing of the transcendental “Plan of Iguala”.
This went on from 24 February 1821 until 27 September of the same year when the Trigarante Army, commanded by members of the ex realistic group, Agustin de Iturbide, enters triumphant, along with Vicente Guerrero, Mexico City. The contingent, composed of soldiers of General Iturbide (already converted) and insurgents who remained, kept going by the current Madero Street in the Historic Center of Mexico City to reach the popular square of the Zocalo. With this event the struggle for independence of Mexico, was formally ended.
If you would like to know more details or are interested in learning about history do your little search! You will be surprised by how interesting it is and how exciting it is to read about The history of Mexico.